Australia - LSC’s growth into the global installation market has enabled the company to develop a new range of professional DMX DINrail devices to “better serve and protect the installer from cheap and inferior data distribution products that can cause significant on-site problems”.
The new MDR-DIN data distribution range is a four-way DINrail-mount version of the MDR DMX splitter with RDM as standard. Each of the four-port outputs is individually optically isolated, protecting lighting systems from earth loops, rogue voltages and transients.
In addition, each output of the MDR-DIN can be RDM enabled/disabled as required by the user and each port monitored remotely via LSC’s new Houston-X software tool.
UK - Harlequin Floors has launched Reversible Red/Black, a new colour in its Reversible range of double-sided dance, event and stage floor vinyl. The product is available now from the Harlequin global offices.
Harlequin Reversible is a lightweight calendered vinyl that rolls out quickly, lays flat and stays flat, says the company. It is hard-wearing and slip-resistant and offers versatility as it can be used on both sides. Harlequin Reversible also conforms to fire rating Bfl-s1 (EN 13501-1) and is easy to handle and transport, making it particularly suitable for touring and events.
Other colours in the Reversible range include Black/White (001), Dark Grey/Light Grey (003), Fog/Tan (890) and Hazelnut/Beige (310).
For TV and film production, Harlequin has developed Black/Projection Grey (005), a vinyl surface that is ideal for projecting onto it thanks to its ability to absorb ambient light. Harlequin also offers Chroma Key Green/Chroma Key Blue, designed specifically for digital compositing, providing a practical solution for filmmakers and television producers as both a floor and backdrop.
USA - Elation Professional’s 50,000lm all-purpose luminaire Proteus Maximus is now shipping.
With flexible use as a profile, beam or wash light and all-weather IP65 rating, the Proteus Maximus is suitable for any outdoor or indoor application that would require bright output, powerful beam looks and precise gobos and colours. The dust and waterproof design makes the fixture ideal for theme parks and cruise ships, while its quiet operation, flicker-free functionality and DMX-controllable LED refresh rate will be welcome in TV and other broadcast environments, says the company.
“With Proteus Maximus we managed to create the perfect package for the most challenging environments,” says Elation product manager, Matthias Hinrichs. “From its hotspot engine to its large front lens, this is an outstanding fixture that provides designers the power to cover huge areas and long distances with remarkable output, colour and optical precision. Maximus certainly lives up to its name, truly offering maximum performance and utility out of a single model.”
UK - Polar has announced that Biamp’s new Parlé ceiling microphones are available for shipping. Aimed at conference rooms and utilising the Beamtracking technology found in the TCM-1 pendant microphone, Biamp has responded to a growing demand amongst architects, designers and end users for ‘invisible’ technologies, with the TCM-X ceiling microphone.
With four 90° zones for full 360°room coverage, the TCM-X’s beam tracking technology, which actively tracks and intelligently mixes conversations, works straight out of the box, simplifying installation and reducing commissioning time.
Each microphone uses just one channel of acoustic echo cancellation (AEC) for far more efficient processing resource utilisation than conventional beamforming models. The range also includes the TCM-XA with 2-channel PoE and amplifier for further ease of installation (requiring only a single cable from the DSP to the unit’s ceiling-located amp) and the TCM-XEX expansion model.
Stuart Leader, director at Polar Integrated Solutions comments, “Parlé’s Beamtracking technology combines full room coverage and complete freedom of movement while making system commissioning easier for integrators. Room aesthetics are a major priority in contemporary settings and Biamp have significantly raised the bar in this respect with these models. At less than six inches in diameter, the microphone enclosures really do blend subtly into the ceiling while delivering crystal clear conferencing.”
USA - Vari-Lite has announced that its new Vari-Lite VL6500 Wash is now shipping.
The high-output wash lighting fixture, first demonstrated at Prolight+Sound 2019 in Frankfurt, combines the VL6000 Beam’s arena-scale performance with a visual attraction reminiscent of the legendary VL5. The fixture offers show designers a mix of modern power and vintage styling.
“The initial response to the VL6500 Wash has been tremendous, and it’s not surprising really, because we made this fixture as a direct response to the requests we have received from lighting designers,” explains Martin Palmer, senior product manager, Vari-Lite and Strand Luminaires at Signify. “We partnered with designers every step of the way when creating this fixture and tailored it to provide the capabilities our customers asked for most often.”
Palmer reports that customers like that the VL6500 Wash is a fully featured wash fixture companion to the VL6000 Beam with the same big picture form factor as its award-winning sibling. The VL6500 offers a full CYM+CTO system and fixed colour wheels but has presets that are colour-matched to the VL6000 Beam, improving the colour system while providing a consistent experience.
For further creative colour possibilities, the VL6500’s extended colour range mode offers the ability to move the colour mixing wheels beyond full saturation back to open. This allows designers to use creative split colour effects that can be seen both in air and on the Dichro*fusion blades.
“The Dichro*fusion blade system is absolutely the featur
USA - ADJ has announced the expansion of its Focus series of LED-powered moving head fixtures with the introduction of the Focus Beam LED.
The first dedicated beam fixture in the range, this new model generates a concentrated beam that is suited for creating impressive and engaging aerial effects.
Powered by an 80W white (7400K) LED light source with 50,000-hour average life, Focus Beam LED features an optical system that creates an output comparable to an MSD 5R lamp. The front lens projects a beam with a 5° angle that has an even field with no hot spots, and which remains uniform over long projection distances.
The fixture is also compact and lightweight, measuring 10.96" x 6.85" x 17.61" / 278 x 174 x 447mm (LxWxH) and weighing 27 lb (12.25 kg), whilst its relatively low profile also makes suitable for installations in venues with limited ceiling height or for areas where rigging space is limited.
“The Focus series has proved very popular for a wide variety of applications across the middle market of the entertainment lighting world,” explains ADJ USA’s national sales manager, Alfred Gonzales. “From churches to nightclubs, production companies to mobile entertainers, Focus Series moving heads have made their mark on fixed installations and temporary event productions all over the world. Which is why we are excited to be expanding the series with the new Focus Beam LED.
“Despite its compact size and low power requirement, this impressive fixture generates a surprisingly-potent beam that is capable of holding its own in larg
Germany - ETC and High End Systems presented live demonstrations alongside their latest line-up of products to large crowds at Stage|Set|Scenery 2019. Visitors arrived in their thousands to Messe Berlin, with many gathering at ETC’s stands to watch the Prodigy P2 hoist installations and Augment3d demo.
During the three-day tradeshow, ETC held live demonstrations installing the innovative Prodigy P2 hoist. The speedy installation of the full upper stage machinery system including luminaires was completed by just two staff members in under half an hour every time.
Crowds gathered as the quickest time recorded during the show to install the P2 powerhead, hang the ColorSource Raceway, fit a double purchased swag-style cable management system and rig and connect some ColorSource luminaires was under 18 minutes. ETC’s Prodigy P2 is compact in size and has advanced features that make installations a swift and easy process, saving costs and time, and with variants available from European stock entire projects can be delivered at short notice.
Visitors to the lighting hall of the international trade fair and conference were able to see in-depth presentations of ETC’s first integrated 3D programming environment, Augment3d. The Eos v3.0 tool was shown on Eos Ti and Gio @5 consoles, demonstrating how users can design and control in a three dimensional space as well as interacting with their fixtures through augmented reality.
High End Systems distributor, Preworks GmbH showcased a range of the newest products at the tradeshow. A selection of automat
South Africa - DWR Distribution will have a major presence at Mediatech Africa, the largest media and entertainment technology trade show in Africa, to be hosted from 17-19 July at the Ticketpro Dome in Johannesburg.
With a list of international guests attending, the exhibition will see some of the world’s leading equipment manufacturers, distributed by DWR, hosting stands at this year’s exhibition, including Robe, Claypaky, Absen, Prolyte, Visual Productions and Quest.
“We wanted to make DWR a central hub for people to unwind, meet up with our team and catch up with our international suppliers,” says Robert Izzett from DWR.
On the DWR stand, visitors will be able to have a drink or enjoy a cup of coffee. Then, a few steps away, they will have the opportunity to see the latest products being demonstrated. “Our suppliers have jumped on board with great enthusiasm, and we know their passion will contribute to creating a fantastic vibe at Mediatech Africa,” says Robert.
Mediatech Africa plans to host three presentation zones, where discussions and training sessions will be held. “This is a great initiative by Mediatech, and DWR along with our suppliers, are glad to contribute to the conversation,” he ends.
USA - ETC’s new Response Mk2 DMX Gateways translate DMX/RDM to and from sACN, allowing users to put control exactly where they need it - saving money and time.
Available in one-, two- and four-port models, Response Mk2 DMX Gateways provide DMX and RDM data distribution, taking advantage of the reliability and interoperability of industry-standard protocols such as ANSI E1.31 (sACN) and ANSI E1.20 (RDM). Every model now features an OLED screen and four-button interface to display and modify configuration and status.
Response Mk2 DMX Gateways make it easy to deal with the headaches of networks, too, says the company. With increased processing, each Gateway can support 256 RDM devices. Plus, all Gateways can be monitored and configured from a central location with ETC’s Concert software, letting users change network status and DMX/RDM settings
Response Mk2 DMX Gateways offer powerful integration into ETC’s Paradigm, Echo, or Mosaic architectural lighting control systems.
South Africa - Robe Lighting is heading to South Africa to present a selection of its latest moving lights and LED technology on stand - C18 - at Mediatech Africa, at the Ticketpro Dome in Johannesburg, from 17-19 July.
This is the second time that Robe hosts its own stand at Mediatech, supporting its local distributor DWR. Expo visitors can look forward to meeting up with key Robe people including CEO Josef Valchar, international sales director Harry von den Stemmen, theatre and performing arts specialist Dave Whitehouse - who previously worked at DWR Distribution - lighting and media designer Nathan Wan and technical specialist Radim Zlebek.
Highlighted products will include the T1 Profile, T1 Wash, SuperSpikie, SilverScan, BMFL FollowSpot, BMFL WashBeam, MegaPointe, RoboSpot and Divine 160.
UK - AED’s SL18 Showlift was named Engineering Product of the Year’ at the annual ABTT Awards, which took place during the ABTT Theatre Show in June.
The DMX-controlled automated production lift offers theatre and live event lighting designers a new set of tools to add dynamics. It’s quiet, smooth and fast operation, and the fact that it can be controlled by a 2-channel DMX signal from a lighting desk, has been attracting attention since it was launched.
The ABTT Awards’ panel of judges praised the AED-SL18 as “a piece of engineering equipment with the lighting designer in mind. With a small lifting platform that can take the weight of a moving light and controlled from the same DMX system as the moving light, the Showlift allows all the programming to sit in one place.”
David Baker, commercial manager at AED UK, comments: “We’re thrilled that the AED-SL18 has been recognised as Engineering Product of the Year by the ABTT Awards’ judges. AED worked closely with VMB to create this innovative product, which is engineered to provide a powerful mix of clever mechanics and clean aesthetic design alongside easy-to-programme set up and deployment. It’s fantastic to see it making waves in the industry and enhancing shows. Thank you to ABTT and the Awards judges - everyone at AED is honoured to accept this award.”
Inside the AED-SL18, the inertial lift offers smooth operation up and down and when multiple units are used, all can operate at the same speeds and heights when programmed using timecode.
“In addition, we desig
Europe - Milos has reently introduced redesigned short truss segments in its M290 range, which incorporate thicker bracing tubes.
The redesign of the tubes increases the shear load capacity of the short truss sections, resulting in strength equal to that of Milos regular truss sections.
With the introduction of this new design, short truss sections can now be placed anywhere within a truss structure without having any adverse impact on the structure’s loading capacity. The planning process is therefore simplified and the risk of errors during structure assembly is eliminated, says the company.
Europe - Featuring a new design concept and significant improvements in audio performance, usability and portability, Yamaha's new Stagepas 1K “redefines the standard for portable PA systems”.
The new system features modified versions of the 1.5 inch (3.75 cm) drivers with high end neodymium magnets that have made Yamaha’s VXL series line array loudspeakers a great success in the professional sound installation market, receiving widespread praise for their audio quality, 170º horizontal coverage and slimline appearance.
Bringing all of those qualities to the streamlined, reduced weight Stagepas 1K system, an array of 10 of the 1.5 inch drivers work seamlessly with a 12” subwoofer to deliver uniform, high quality sound with clear highs and punchy lows. The subwoofer features Yamaha's Twisted Flare Port technology, which effectively reduces wind noise in the bass reflex port, delivering a clearer, more powerful, distortion-free low end.
Complementing the loudspeakers is a 1000W Class-D amplifier, delivering 119 dB SPL and maintaining exceptional stability and sound quality, even at high output.
The back of the subwoofer houses a digital mixer with three mono mic/line channels (two with Hi-Z connectivity for direct input of electro-acoustic guitars and other instruments), plus stereo inputs which support playback from Bluetooth devices.
The mixer also features professional sound engineering tools, including 1-Knob EQ that handles multi-band processing simultaneously, high-quality SPX digital reverb and a Mode feature to adjust opt
France - Whatsit, the French video mapping consultant and events specialist, has announced the launch of Lumings - a plug-in for the 3D design and modelling software application Sketchup, whose purpose is to simulate the technical rendering side of video mapping in the most realistic way possible.
The video projection design tool is set to save valuable time and substantially reduce technical costs for technical videographers, scenographers and project managers alike, says the company.
Lumings makes it possible to design an entire scenography before setting foot on site, thanks to its accurate and precise models and information. Another advantage, and what makes it unique to the market, is its comprehensive database, which integrates the technical characteristics of all existing professional projectors.
Working closely with manufacturers, and following a thorough in-house development period, Whatsit has gathered, tested and measured the necessary data to allow a show designer to precisely simulate a variety of factors, for any set of projectors. The projector’s illuminance, positioning, energy consumption and heat release can all be monitored, as well as wider concerns such as pixel size / distortion, or the impact of shadows on projection surfaces.
Pierre-Yves Toulot, managing director of Whatsit, comments: “In our job, speed of execution is a key factor, and we were looking for a reliable plug-in that would allow us to be more efficient. So we started working on a plugin which would feel familiar to users, and we wanted to make it availa
Europe - Philips Professional Display Solutions has announced that its complete range of Google-certified, Android-powered MediaSuite Pro TVs is now available across EMEA.
Unveiled during ISE 2019 in Amsterdam, the Philips PDS MediaSuite range has been designed to help “revolutionise the way businesses and end-users can access and broadcast digital content, debuting several ground-breaking features never before seen on a Professional TV”.
Following a soft launch earlier this year, the MediaSuite range consists of seven variants in two series and is a perfect solution for a wide range of verticals, including hospitality, education, corporate, retail, food and beverage and healthcare, amongst others.
The HFL6014U UHD series is available as 43” 50”, 55’ and 65” models with slimline, silver bezels and a swivel stand. The HFL5014 FHD series is available in black in 32”, 43” and 50”. Both series feature direct LED back lights and high-quality panels to offer superior contrast, black level, brightness and colour saturation to ensure an outstanding picture performance.
MediaSuite TVs also provide access to thousands of apps through the Google Play Store, including major services such as YouTube, Deezer and Spotify, plus local news, weather and traffic information.
“The way we all consume content at home and at work has changed significantly in recent years and it’s important for that experience to remain consistent,” commented Anthony Tizzard, Pro TV business manager EMEA, Professional TV. “Whether you’re in a hotel r
USA - At InfoComm 2019, Martin Audio held the world premiere of both the latest Wavefront Precision optimised line array, WPS, as well the integration of BlackTrax real time tracking for its immersive audio experience, 3-D Sound Adventures. In addition, it also marked the US launch of the company’s latest powered point source range, BlacklineX Powered.
Up first in the demo room was the debut integration between Martin Audio’s immersive Sound Adventures and the renowned BlackTrax real-time tracking technology. Based on a ground-breaking new algorithm, which converts Real-Time Tracking Protocol (RTTrP) signals to Open Sound Control (OSC) commands, the BlackTrax integration showcased how performers could be tracked seamlessly with both lighting and localised audio for a truer, more impactful AV experience.
This was followed by the US premiere of the latest powered point source series, BlacklineX Powered. Including the 12-inch XP12 and 15-inch XP15 full range enclosures plus the compact but powerful 18-inch XP118 subwoofer, BlacklineX Powered integrates acoustic, DSP and amplifier technologies to achieve the clarity, precision and richness of tone that audio professionals will recognise as uniquely Martin Audio.
In addition, BlacklineX Powered offers optional Bluetooth control, streaming and a built-in 3-channel mixer, placing increased flexibility and features within easy reach of every user via iPad or iPhone - from live venues, DJs and corporate events to permanent installs, particularly houses of worship.
As a finale, the latest in the Wav
UK - Broadweigh Bluetooth is now an award-winning product - despite launching just one week ago. The product which made its debut on the A.C. Entertainment stand at the ABTT Theatre Show in Alexandra Palace, was awarded the Widget of the Year accolade at the annual awards ceremony.
The judging panel, which comprised an experienced group of working practitioners and industry peers, comments: "As a quick way to provide monitoring of small rigs, the Broadweigh load cell shackle - in conjunction with a Bluetooth connected device running the Broadweigh app - is exceptionally useful for those touring shows that require up to 12 points of rigging. The App also sums selected load cells to enable a maximum load to be identified. Use of this product will greatly speed up prep days."
Kelly Voysey, sales and marketing manager at Mantracourt Electronics, Broadweigh's parent company added: "We are delighted to receive this year's widget award at the show. Our aim was to bring a useful and affordable tool to a theatre technician's tool box - which would provide a clear picture of what is happening on the rig.”
She continued: "As a design and manufacturing company, our ethos is to bring intelligent, usable products to market. We believe the Broadweigh Bluetooth system fills a gap in the load monitoring solutions currently available. We look forward to bringing more Broadweigh innovations to our customers."
Johnny Marshall, senior rigging sales executive for A.C. Entertainment, Broadweigh's product partner in the UK, adds: "The Broadweigh Bluetooth shackle
Europe - Released through Prolight Concepts Group, the LEDJ Spectra QX40 Pixel “gives the wow factor to any indoor or outdoor space”. This IP-rated exterior fixture will withstand the elements, illuminating event spaces, stages or facades in all weathers, says the company.
Utilising quad-colour technology from its 40 10W RGBW LEDs the Spectra QX40 Pixel can produce a wide colour spectrum from rich, primary colours through to subtle pastel hues. This, coupled with five segment pixel zone control, allows lighting designers to create stunning effects. This multi-use fixture can also be truss mounted via the included Omega clamps, making it suitable for use as a blinder, strobe or stage wash panel.
The QX40 features a heavy-duty alloy chassis with precise 180° tilt angle adjustment, quick release omega brackets, powerCON TRUE1 connectors and IP rated 5-pin XLR connectors both fitted with protective rubber covers. It also has an easy to navigate four-button menu with OLED display plus both wired DMX and W-DMX Sweden wireless DMX, further widening its application use.
The fixture offers a broad range of optional extras. The LEDJ QX40 has a long-throw 8° beam angle as standard but this can be easily changed with the optional 15° x 60°, 40° and 20° fast fit beam shaping lenses. Barn doors or a snoot to reduce glare and light spill are also available. Keeping the fixture safe is an optional custom designed flight case holding up to four units and accessories.
USA - LEA Professional has released the Connect Series amplifiers with four mid-power models of IoT-enabled professional amplifiers for the professional installation market. The Connect 354, Connect 704, Connect 354D and Connect 704D aim to “provide system designers and integrators simple and powerful solutions to drive their large-scale installations with the capacity to support monthly recurring revenue (MRR) business models”.
“Our mid-power models are meant to be the installers go-to amplifier when designing larger, more complex systems for applications like airports, theatres, theme-parks, and stadiums. These are the venues where reliability and simplicity are critically important and that is where our IoT enabled amplifiers will shine.” says LEA Professional founder and CEO, Blake Augsburger. “Installers need to know that their systems are performing perfectly during every use and this is the product that will arm them with that information and confidence.”
With the Connect Series’ built-in AWS IoT Core, system integrators can monitor hundreds of data points from fan speed to thermal temperatures to system faults and more without even being in the same building as the system. This opens the door for system integrators to identify potential issues, troubleshoot the cause, and load new parts on the truck long before any urgent maintenance is required.
The Connect Series is made up of two product families – the Dante Connect and Network Connect models. All four mid-power models are built with fully routable analog inputs and the
USA - Danley Sound Labs has announced its new FLX-Series of flexible loudspeakers.
The Danley FLX-12 is the first member of the range. It can be pole-mounted, hung from rig points, or lain on its side as a floor monitor.
With 94dB sensitivity, a phase-coherent frequency response from 75Hz to 21kHz (+/- 3dB), multi-band Sentinel burn out protection, and 118dB continuous and 124dB peak output, the FLX-12 is at home in any small- to medium-sized sound reinforcement application.
“The new Danley FLX is designed by Tom Danley and his team of engineers for customers who need extreme flexibility and Danley fidelity at a cost-effective price point,” explains JP Parker, director of global sales at Danley Sound Labs. “The FLX stands for flexibility without sacrificing Danley’s legendary performance.”
USA - Powersoft has unveiled Mezzo, a new line of amplifiers designed for the AV/IT market.
Mezzo consists of eight amplifier models, each offering different power and connectivity options. The range is suited for corporate, hospitality and educational environments and is a self-configuring amplifier system that delivers power and flexibility in a compact, Class-D technology design that is easy to install and operate.
Klas Dalbjorn, product manager at Powersoft, comments: “Until now, AV/IT integrators and end-users might have experienced limited flexibility in existing low power solutions to drive audio in corporate, hospitality and education environments. Our new Mezzo platform delivers the quality and reliability Powersoft is already known for, but with smaller power configurations that are highly adaptable for a range of different fixed installation environments.
“We recognise there are many system designers and integrators that seldom need more than 250W and can often make do on as little 15W on a channel - Mezzo covers these needs.”
The eight available models in the new Mezzo line consist of four power sizes, each offering an option with ‘A’ (analogue) or ‘AD’ (analogue-digital), which adds Dante/AES67. The power sizes include smaller option of 320W in 4 x 80W and 2 x 160W variants, and a larger option of 600W in 4 x 150 or 2 x 300W. All of the eight models are networkable and feature automatic setup for audio parameters, significantly reducing deployment time during installation.
“The power sharing capabilities of
USA - Bose Professional has expanded its portfolio with more than 50 new products designed to enable specifiers to “build complete Bose systems without sourcing from different vendors”.
Meanwhile, end-users are set to benefit from “a system with components that have been designed to work seamlessly together,” says Bose.
Announced earlier this year and being shown at InfoComm 2019 are the new ArenaMatch DeltaQ loudspeakers and ArenaMatch Utility loudspeakers, which bring Bose consistency, vocal clarity and flexibility to outdoor installations through DeltaQ technology.
Also introduced this year are 12 models of new, easy-to-install DesignMax loudspeakers in a range of sizes (ceiling and surface models, black and white, with subwoofer options); five new PowerSpace amplifiers (two with onboard DSP); two Commercial Sound Processors with a simplified configuration tool; three new digital ControlCentre controllers; and an upgraded Business Music System Designer software tool to facilitate quicker and better system designs.
Morten Jorgensen, director, global sales and operations, comments: “At Bose Professional, we believe pro audio is about creating incredible experiences. It’s about making the spaces in which we live and work better. With that in mind, we’re developing more products than ever, so that our customers can build complete systems that are easier to install and easier to operate while delivering clear, powerful sound in every space.”
USA - Coda Audio is launching its ultra-compact two-way Arrayable Point Source N-APS at this year’s InfoComm.
Combining the versatility of a point source with the arrayability of a line array, N-APS offers a sound reinforcement system for small to medium size venues by delivering twice the power handling, as well as significantly more low-end, than other comparable sized systems, says the company.
N-APS is the smaller sibling of Coda Audio’s APS system. For smaller venues or corporate events where, for example, the geometry of a space might be considered to make coverage awkward, N-APS provides “an unobtrusive, ultra-small, yet phenomenally powerful solution”.
Complementing the launch of N-APS, Coda Audio is also introducing N-SUB, a compact 15” high output subwoofer that reaches as low as 30Hz. Like N-APS, N-SUB benefits from DAC which allows it to reach high SPLs whilst staying “completely cool”.
USA - ROE Visual has introduced a new series of LED screens at Infocomm 2019.
The new LED products, named Amber and Jasper, are designed to serve the market for fixed installation and AV integration.
Based on its experience with LED screens used in the live event industry ROE Visual has based the range on its philosophy of providing adaptable products that offer excellent visual quality and are easy to install, maintain and use.
Amber is designed for environments where excellent visuals count. “Installing a fine pitch video screen in exacting environments, like corporate boardrooms, broadcast studios or control rooms just got easier with the Amber LED panels,” says the company.
Jasper is designed for high-end indoor LED applications. The Jasper LED panels are developed to “play into the demands for permanent video installations”.